THC/marijuana effects

cannabis_1535240640-774x1024 THC/marijuana effects
OpenClipart-Vectors / Pixabay

From the Cannabis Medical Dictionary CannabisMD.net

Diabetes is a condition wherein the body either produces inadequate amounts of insulin or fails to utilize available insulin properly. An estimated 1 million Americans suffer from Type 1 diabetes, which develops in childhood. Another 15 million suffer from Type 2 diabetes, also known as adult-onset diabetes, which develops later in life. Symptoms generally include an imbalance of blood sugar levels and a high level of sugar excreted through the urine. Initial studies showed that cannabis has no effect on blood sugar levels. A recent test-tube study showed that very high doses of synthetic THC might aggravate diabetes, but that same research also indicates that continued use of cannabis creates a tolerance to the potential aggravation. No human studies have found that cannabis or synthetic cannabinoids contribute to symptoms of diabetes. At the same time, no human studies have been undertaken to prove or disprove the reports of long-term diabetics who claim that cannabis use causes an immediate lowering of abnormally high blood sugar levels. Some diabetics also claim that cannabis helps stabilize blood sugar levels and maintain mental stability or correct mood swings caused by fluctuating blood sugar levels. Separating the apparent blood sugar response from the anti-anorexic properties of cannabis is currently a matter for further investigation.

Diabetics are frequently instructed to refrain from alcohol use because of its high caloric content. Cannabis may provide a psychologically valuable alternative to alcohol in stress reduction, a major factor in managing the potentially life-threatening symptoms of diabetes. Hence, cannabis may function in several ways to reduce and stabilize blood sugar levels for patients suffering from diabetes. However, regardless of mounting anecdotal evidence in medical practice, including medical testimony before a district court in California. No scientific papers have been published on the effectiveness of cannabis in treating diabetes.

While cannabis has been used as a replacement for insulin, diabetics are strongly advised to continue their physician’s prescribed treatment plan.

 

“Thousands of candles can be lit from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened.” – BuddhaSource: New feed

Hits: 17

Cannabis Ingredients & Effects

Tetrahydrocannabinol is insoluble in water but soluble in oil or alcohol.

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), often considered to be the primary active substance in cannabis, along with other psychoactive cannabinoids are hydrophobic oils, which are insoluble in water but soluble in liquids (oil/fat) and alcohol. Using either one of these to extract THC from cannabis is required to have the cooked product be psychoactive. During preparation, the cannabis or its extract must be heated sufficiently or dehydrated to cause decarboxylation of its most abundant cannabinoid, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, into psychoactive THC.

The oil-solubility of cannabis extracts has been known since ancient times, when Sanskrit recipes from India required that the cannabis be sauteed in a clarified butter called ghee before mixing it with other ingredients. Making a tea by boiling cannabis in water is a highly inefficient way to extract cannabinoids, although if the cannabis is of good quality and has plenty of resin on the outside, a portion of resin can be softened by the heat and float out into the water. Adding whole milk (which contains fat) when steeping, however, makes it much more efficient than using plain water, and this technique has been used for thousands of years in India to make the drink bhang.

Some authors claim that oral consumption of cannabis, when properly cooked, is a more efficient way to absorb cannabinoids than smoking it.Oral consumption of cannabinoids can result in a similar psychoactive effect or “high” as smoking marijuana, although it may be delayed due to slower absorption of the THC from the digestive tract. Whereas the effects from smoking cannabis are usually felt within a few minutes, it can take up to two hours to reach full effects after ingesting it. Marijuana produces THCA, an acid with the carboxylic group (COOH) attached. In its acid form, THC is not very active. It is only when the carboxyl group is removed that THC becomes psychoactive. When marijuana is smoked, the THC behind the hot spot is vaporized as the hot air from the burn is drawn through the joint or pipe bowl to the unburned material. The liquid THC and other cannabinoids have a boiling point of between 180-200 °C (355-392 °F). Before they turn gaseous, at around 106 °C (220 °F), the carboxyl group is released from the molecule as carbon dioxide and water vapor

 

. “Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.” – Buddha

Hits: 0

How To Calculate Edible Dosage

In a legal marijuana market, edibles are dosed in milligrams. For those of us who would smoke a joint here and there, upon entry into the legalized reality, you suddenly have to grapple with this fact. Sure, we’ve been buying weed in some hybridized state between grams (metric) and ounces (imperial) for a while, yet the concept of how much weed you need for edibles comes down to differences in how we understand weight as a measure of effect.
In truth, seeing “10 milligrams” next to an edible is a poor indicator of how you will feel if the only other experience with marijuana you’ve had is smoking a joint with friends. To add to this, edibles can take significantly longer to kick in, so people often take too many too fast.

Edibles vs. Smoking

The process of eating edibles is often seen as a different experience than smoking. And down to a biochemical level, it definitely is. The high from edibles is produced through digestive metabolism rather than absorption through the lungs. This means it transitions through the digestive system, being broken down to get into the blood rather than going immediately to the bloodstream via absorption through the lungs.
Topical marijuana products, such as patches or salves, also skip this process of digestive metabolism because they are applied directly to the skin. The skin is, after all, an organ.

Do the Math

When it comes down to it, calculating how much weed you need for edibles requires two things. First, you have to know the recipe. Second, you have to understand how the effects manifest when absorbed through the digestive system. These two things will not only dictate how strong your edibles are, but they will also frame what you can expect to experience. Again, for those of us who are accustomed to smoking, vaping cannabis, or even using topical marijuana, those effects commonly happen sooner than with edibles. This, however, is not an understanding that translates to potency.

Potency, Percentages, and Perception

The potency of marijuana is commonly measured in percentages. If you are making edibles that you’re looking at in terms of milligrams, a conversion relating to potency percentages will have to be used before you can determine how much weed you need for edibles. It works like this:
As more and more states come online with medical or recreational marijuana programs, states are increasingly seeing it necessary to put the products through laboratory testing to determine (a) if harmful pesticides were used and (b) the potency of the cannabinoids and/or terpenes available in your weed or weed product. This made it easier for everyone to understand how strong the weed is, but when it comes to making edibles at home, a percentage indicating potency effectively undermines the fact that edibles are measured in milligrams.
This perception makes it difficult to determine how much you’ll actually need to make a potent batch. Compounded with the American aversion to using the metric system, the process of determining potency as a percentage of weight can easily produce an edible with either too much or not enough.

One gr am of marijuana is equal to 1,000 mg of marijuana.

      

On average, in a legal market, you’ll likely find your weed is between 10-20% THC. While this varies from plant to plant, the meaning of the percentage remains the same. If your plant shows a THC potency of 20%, this means 20% of the 1,000 mg is THC. Think about it like this:

1 gram = 1,000 milligrams
20% of 1,000 mg = 200 mg
Per one gram, you have 200 mg of THC
When determining how much weed you need for edibles, translating percentages to milligrams will help you understand how strong your batch is. The next part is knowing your recipe and how to cook with marijuana. If your recipe can make, say, 60 cookies, you now need to apply the milligram strength over that.
Wait, but how do you know how many milligrams you want per edible?

Bioavailability and First-Pass Metabolism

Research has shown THC can be processed through the digestive system, where a phenomenon known as first-pass metabolism is at work. First-pass metabolism is how your body converts food or drugs into things that impact your health and wellbeing. From food, this means getting necessary nutrients into the bloodstream. For drugs, this means getting a drug into the bloodstream. Typically, this process of first pass metabolism limits how much of a substance is absorbed into the blood. This is known as bioavailability.
Research suggests the bioavailability of smoking weed means your body will absorb an average of 30% if you smoke it. Think about it like this:

1 gram = 1,000 mg
20% THC = 200 mg per gram
30% of 200 mg = 60 mg
In effect, this means per gram of marijuana you smoke, your body may only fully absorb 6% of it, which is 30% of the available THC. When to comes to how much weed you need for edibles, the bioavailability of THC via the digestive system is commonly less. Yet, marijuana edibles are effective at 5 mg or 10 mg intervals, and even less if you see fit. So what is truly going on?

A Metabolite That Bends the Rule

THC, when taken through the digestive system, is more likely to be converted to a metabolite in the liver, which has an amplified availability in the blood. THC is mostly converted to 11-OH-THC in the liver, which research suggests is four times as available to the body, even with a lower bioavailability than when smoked (estimated between 6-10%). Think about it like this:

1 gram = 1,000 mg
20% THC = 200 mg THC
6% of 200 mg = 12 mg
12 *4 = 48 mg
In effect, when determining how much weed you need for edibles, this is the reason they feel more intense while having a lesser potency. This means for every 12 mg of edibles you consume, you can expect it to produce a biological effect equivalent to 48 mg, which is only 20% less than the effect you’d expect from smoking an entire gram.
Based on this, subjective factors are how strong you want your experience to be and how many edibles you’d like to make. Those are up to you to decide.

 

Joey is a freelance writer and digital marketer based out of Denver, Colorado. He has been a contributing writer in the cannabis industry for nearly two years. In his time in the cannabis space, he has written on economics, taxes, regulations, law, and medical or scientific research.

Source: New feed

Hits: 2

How to Decarboxylate Cannabis at Home

decarboxylating695x319

 How to Decarboxylate Cannabis at Home

decarboxylating695x319 How to Decarboxylate Cannabis at Home

In order to decarboxylate cannabis at home, all you need is some starting material, a pre-heated oven set to 220-235 degrees F (I like to use my own thermomiter ), some parchment paper, and a baking tray. Finely grind your cannabis until the material can be spread thin over parchment and placed on your baking sheet. Allow the cannabis to bake for 20-35 minutes, or longer if desired. It’s important not to let the temperature go over 350 degrees F. as the temperature continues to rise the THC starts breaking down and turns to CBD then burns and becomes ineffective 
Cannabis can also be decarboxylated in a slow cooker by introducing solvents such as cooking oils or lecithin. These methods create infusions that can be used in a variety of cooking recipes, topicals, and even cannabis capsules. Since they contain decarboxylated cannabinoids, they will be effective any way you choose to consume them.

More at; https://www.leafly.com/

image-8912176-11412870 How to Decarboxylate Cannabis at Home
image-8912176-11910791 How to Decarboxylate Cannabis at Home

Source: New feed

Hits: 18